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Please read all the material below………. and follow all the steps………..

by | Jun 21, 2022 | Social Work | 0 comments

 

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Please read all the material below………. and follow all the steps……………
when you find articles, they have to be peer reviewed, can not be older then 7 years old. ………….
Getting Started
For this final discussion board of the course, start to think about and then develop two research questions and two hypotheses. These research questions and hypotheses should be developed directly from the research sections that you have completed in the course thus far, especially from the literature review. The research question and hypothesis will most likely be the foundation for the following SWK 662 course next term. Below, I will discuss separately how to develop a proper research question and hypothesis.
First, what is the difference between a research question and a hypothesis. Well, a research question “explains” the purpose of your research proposal. In other words, what issue or problem are you trying to answer by completing your program or practice evaluation? A hypothesis is more specific than a research question and “predicts” something in your research proposal based on specific hypothesis statements. These hypothesis statements identifies what problem or issue you are trying to answer in your program or practice evaluation.
Now let’s talk about the more specific components of each…….
Research Questions
A majority of students tend to make the same mistake when developing a research question for their study. More specifically, they tend to develop research questions that are topics (and not a research question), too broad, not based on observable evidence, not relevant to social work, not feasible, that have already been answered, and that do not express a relationship between two or more concepts.
Let’s take a look at some of the characteristics of good research questions below, in addition to some bad examples of research questions. More specifically, the left column includes characteristics of good research questions and the right column includes examples of bad research questions.
Characteristics of Good Research Questions
Examples of Bad Research Questions
Research questions should be a question not a topic.
The treatment of older adults with schizophrenia (topic, not a research question).
Research questions need to be narrow, specific, and clearly stated.
Is schizophrenia an important issue in treating older adults in the community (broad, non-specific, not clear)?
Research questions need to be posed in a way that can be answered by observable evidence.
Should older adults with schizophrenia receive free healthcare (not based on observable evidence; value judgment)?
Research questions should have potential relevance for guiding social work practice and policy.
Can older adults who receive in-patient treatment for schizophrenia fly a kite (not relevant to social work practice or policy)?
Research questions should be feasible to answer.
Do older adults who are homeless and receive treatment for 10 years adjust better to the community (not feasible; large scope; too much time to complete)?
Research questions should pose a problem which has not already been successfully answered by you or someone else.
Do older adults who have Medicare insurance live healthier lifestyles (already been answered)?
Research questions should express a relationship between two or more concepts (e.g., is A related to B? How are A and B related to B under conditions C and D?).
The treatment of older adults who are homeless (does not express relationship between two or more concepts).
From the above Table, hopefully you can get a better understanding of how to develop a proper research question. Keep in mind that as you write this research question you need to think about whether you plan to complete a program or practice evaluation next term for the SWK-662 course. Take a look below at how your research question would be developed depending on whether you plan to choose a program or practice evaluation.
Research Question (Program Evaluation) vs. Research Question (Practice Evaluation)
Does the No Drug Program at the Horizons Center help to reduce drug use of residents?
Does the Feel Safe Program at St. Peters Residential Program help to reduce “cutting” behavior of the residents?
Do the employees at Franklin Hospital believe that the Employee Empowerment program is being implemented properly?
Does client X reduce drug use after receiving a cognitive-behavioral intervention at the Horizon Center?
Does client Z reduce “cutting” behavior after receiving a solution-focused intervention at the St. Peters Residential Program?
Does employee Y feel more empowered after being involved with the Employee Empowerment Program at Franklin Hospital?
From the examples given above in the two columns you should be able to see the difference between writing a research question for a program evaluation and practice evaluation. A program evaluation has a broader focus that includes evaluating an actual program within an agency and a practice evaluation is specific to one (or sometimes two or more clients within an agency). Keep in mind that a properly constructed research question will make it much easier for the person reading your research proposal to understand what you are trying to achieve.
Regardless of whether you choose to write a research question for a program or practice evaluation during this course, you can always change it later on during the SWK-662 course.
Now let’s get to know a little more about how to develop a proper hypothesis….
Hypotheses
Below are eight of the most important characteristics that should be included in the development of a proper hypothesis.
Hypothesis should be testable statements about probable relationships among independent and dependent variables.
Hypotheses should be translatable into operational definitions. Remember that each term in your hypothesis will need to be made operational for testing.
Hypotheses are statements you have reason to believe are true but for which there is inadequate evidence (That is the uncertainty factor).
Hypotheses must be specific. Do not settle for a general hypothesis if it can be broken into more precise sub-hypotheses.
Hypotheses can only be confirmed by the presence of evidence; they cannot be refuted on the basis of lack of evidence.
The criterion for confirming your hypotheses needs to be clear.
Try to relate your hypothesis to the exiting body of knowledge on the subject so you can build on and contribute to it.
Hypotheses are stronger when based on theories stated in general terms and previous empirical studies.
From the aforementioned information about hypotheses, you should be able to get a better understanding of how to develop a proper hypothesis. Keep in mind that as you write this hypothesis you need to think about whether you plan to complete a program or practice evaluation next term for the SWK-662 course. Consider the information below about how your hypothesis will be developed depending on whether you plan to choose a program or practice evaluation.
Hypothesis (Program Evaluation)
Hypothesis (Practice Evaluation)
The residents at the Horizon Center who receive 8 weeks of the No Drug Program will have significantly fewer positive drug screens compared to residents at the Horizon Center who do not receive the 8-week No Drug Program
The residents at the St. Peters Residential Program who receive 12 weeks of the Feel Safe Program will have significantly fewer “cutting’ incidents compared to residents at the St. Peters Residential Program who do not receive the 12-week Feel Safe Program.
Client X will have significantly fewer positive drug screens after receiving an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention compared to before receiving the 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention (hypothesis for a practice evaluation).
Client Z will have significantly fewer “cutting” incidents after receiving a 6-week solution-focused intervention compared to before receiving the 6-week solution-focused intervention (hypothesis for a practice evaluation).
From the examples given above in the two columns you should be able to see the difference between writing a hypothesis for a program evaluation and practice evaluation. A program evaluation has a broader focus that includes evaluating multiple participants within an agency and a practice evaluation is specific to one (or sometimes two or more clients within an agency). Keep in mind that a properly constructed hypothesis will make it much easier for the person reading your research proposal to understand what you are trying to “predict” in your research study.
Regardless of whether you choose to write a hypothesis for a program or practice evaluation during this course, you can always change it later on during the SWK-662 course.
After developing your hypothesis, you have a couple of more steps that you need to complete which include:
Identifying your independent variable (IV);
Identifying your dependent variable (DV);
Defining your IV; and
Defining your DV
Identifying your Independent and Dependent Variables
Generally, in research, a variable is something that you can manipulate and measure. The IV is a variable that is being manipulated by the researcher in order to observe its effects on the DV (almost always the research problem that you identified). The IV is almost always the program (for a program evaluation) or intervention (for a practice evaluation). The DV is a variable that is “dependent” on the IV. The DV is almost always the research problem that you identified during the problem formulation process (e.g., drug use, suicidal behavior, or lack of employment).
Below are the same hypotheses from above, except this time the IV and DV are in bold for each:
The residents at the Horizon Center who receive 8 weeks of the No Drug Program (IV) will have significantly fewer positive drug screens (DV) compared to residents at the Horizon Center who do not receive the 8-week No Drug Program;
The residents at the St. Peters Residential Program who receive 12 weeks of the Feel Safe Program (IV) will have significantly fewer “cutting” incidents (DV) compared to residents at the St. Peters Residential Program who do not receive the 12-week Feel Safe Program;
Client X will have significantly fewer positive drug screens (DV) after receiving an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention (IV) compared to before receiving the 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention (hypothesis for a practice evaluation); and
Client Z will have significantly fewer “cutting” incidents (DV) after receiving a 6-week solution-focused intervention (IV) compared to before receiving the 6-week solution-focused intervention (hypothesis for a practice evaluation).
From the examples above, you should be able to see that the IV . You should also be able to see that the DV in all the examples above (i.e., program & practice evaluation) is the research problem.
Defining your Independent and Dependent Variables
Now that you have a better understanding about how to identify both your IV and DV, it is time to “operationally define” each one. The operational definitions are going to help you and the reader to better understand how you plan to “measure” the concepts you are trying to study. More specifically, the concepts you identified in your hypothesis are usually broad and abstract. These concepts will need to be better understood and measured at some point in the data process, and so you will need to make these concepts more specific and concrete, especially for the dependent variable. The concepts in your hypothesis can be explained and measured using a number of operational definitions, and so you need to decide how you plan to “actually” explain and measure your variables.
Now, take a look at the hypothesis below and I can walk you through the process of identifying your IV, DV, and then operationally defining both the IV and DV:
“The residents at the SPARC Center who receive 6 weeks of the No Drug Program will have significantly lower levels of drug use compared to residents at the SPARC Center who do not receive the 6-week No Drug Program.”
First, you need to identify your IV and DV of the above hypothesis. Remember, earlier we said that your IV is either the program (for program evaluation) or intervention (for practice evaluation) that is being manipulated by the researcher. So, from the hypothesis it should be easy to see that the IV is the No Drug Program. Earlier we also said that the DV would be the research problem that you identified, and so this would be the levels of drug use.
Second, now that you identified both the IV and DV you need to operationally define them. For the IV you could operationally define it as 6 weeks of the No Drug Program that includes 6 weeks of a CBT intervention that will help residents to work on their thinking and behavior toward drug use. In the case of the DV you could operationally define the level of drug use as the amount urine screens that come back positive for each resident. You could also measure levels of drug use by asking family members.
Below are more examples of research concepts and how you could potentially operationally define each one:
Research Concept (& Type of Variable)
Operational Definition
Empowerment Program (IV)
Residents receive 6-weeks counseling to help them become more empowered, followed by 2-weeks of groups to work on their interaction skills
Safeway Program (IV)
Clients receive 6-weeks of individual counseling while at the same time receiving 6-weeks of group counseling.
Women’s Growth Program (IV)
Clients connect with and spend time with another female resident for 4-weeks followed by 4-weeks of group counseling.
Levels of Anxiety (DV)
Measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
Levels of Depression (DV)
Measured with the Beck Depression Inventory
Domestic Violence
Have clients complete a Domestic Violence Questionnaire (DVQ asking about their experiences with domestic violence.
Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:
Analyze quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings (PLO 4; ILO 6)
Synthesize information from a variety of sources to purposefully plan and develop a research practice focus (PLO 4; ILO 6)
Resources
Textbook: Social Work Research Proposals: A Workbook – Section 7
File: Research Proposal I Guide, Page 10
Instructions
Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Develop at least two research questions and two hypotheses directly related to the content you have completed so far in this course. When constructing your questions and hypotheses, consider the guidelines stated in the “Introduction” section of this Discussion;
For your hypothesis, you will need to identify both the independent variable (IV) and dependent variables (DV), in addition to identifying and defining your operational definitions of both your IV and DV; and
Post your actual research question and hypothesis that you chose to the discussion board. For your hypothesis, also post your IV, DV, and operational definitions of the IV and DV.
please follow page 10 of the guide I have posted…… please make sure you do this……..
I have attached the papers I have wrote so far for this assignment….
My research proposal is ……………. Why Do People Who
Have Not Experienced Any Childhood Trauma Lead to Substance Abuse

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