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Name two of the values the military emphasizes in the Activity, “Chronosystem: E
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Name two of the values the military emphasizes in the Activity, “Chronosystem: Events That Have an Impact-War.” Then, explain why these values would help service members become more resilient. Please also share a workplace scenario where these values would be helpful. What would make them helpful in that scenario? Please explain. Finally, how do you think these values could help world leaders handle international relations today?
Chronosystem: Events That Have an Impact—War
Some people wake up every day and live in a state of war, violence, and uncertainty. As you read this section, think about how war can have a tremendous impact on individuals.
Mark Harrison and Nikolaus Wolf (2012) believe that frequency of bilateral militarized conflicts among independent states has been increasing since the 1870s. In 1870 there were fewer than 50 independent states. At the end of the 20th century, there were approximately 180. When looking at the possibility of country pairs that could be in conflict, the number rose from 1,000 in 1870 to 17,000 currently. We have more conflicts today because we have more independent states. As a new state emerges, conflicts may arise, such as when the Soviet Union broke up. From 1870 to 2001, there were 3,168 conflicts; the Soviet Union/Russia was involved in 219, and the United States was involved in 161. China came in third with 151, the United Kingdom with 119, Iran with 112, and Germany with 102. The average number of conflicts per year from 1991 to 2001 was 45.8.
War can impact individuals in different ways. First, individuals may view war vicariously, safely, through media. Given the amount of televisions in the home, social media, and so on, we are exposed to the realities of war. Second, many people in the world actually live in a war zone. And finally, many people experience war because family members are deployed, and the family must adjust to their loved one’s being in harm’s way.
War and the Media
Globalization has changed how we experience war. As discussed previously, children watch many hours of television and are exposed to a lot of violence. During the World Wars, very little information was shared with the public. Images of war were limited. During the Vietnam War, images of the war were shown on the news and were in pictures in magazines. This continued in other wars after Vietnam. The images have had a serious impact on how children view the world. Younger children who watched news coverage of the 1991 Persian Gulf War were more disturbed by visual images of planes dropping bombs and people dying, whereas older children and teens were more upset by abstract threats of terrorism and nuclear war or the possibility of the conflict spreading (Enron et al., 1983).
In Direct Line of Fire
War has changed since the World Wars in 1914–1918 and 1939–1945. War now includes guerrilla tactics, terrorism, and genocide (Walby, 2013). Battles are no longer the centerpiece of war. War is more often dispersed and decentralized, with low levels of intensity of military engagement but over a longer time. Vietnam changed how wars are fought. Guerrilla warfare was used in Vietnam against the United States in order to avoid large battles that they would most likely lose.
In addition, civilians are no longer distinguished from soldiers, and the distinction between combatants and noncombatants has eroded. In fact, civilians may become the main targets because they are more vulnerable. Terrorism is used to weaken political resolve or to prevent a course of action. In the case of the attack on the Twin Towers in New York City, civilians were the primary target. Genocide is also used to exterminate not only the lives of people, but a way of life. Civilians, specifically children, are being used to spy, to cook for soldiers, to fight, to carry guns, and to act as “wives” to the soldiers (Smith, 2001).
According to Robert Muller (2013), over 18 million children are being raised in war-torn environments. Children are the most vulnerable in wartime. Over the past 10 years, 2 million have been killed, 6 million disabled, 20 million made homeless, and 1 million separated from their primary caregivers. They watch their homes burn, see their parents killed, flee from gunfire, are forced into serving in an army or joining to avoid starvation, lay and clear land mines, and fight on the front lines. According to relief agencies, in today’s era of combat, 85–95% of people killed in war are civilians, and about 50% of those killed are children (Smith, 2001).
Children also suffer psychologically, and there is little that is being done to help children process their losses. Many children in war-torn countries end up in refugee camps. They mourn the loss of their lives, feel helpless and hopeless to change their world, become cynical about adulthood, and normalize violence (Smith, 2001). After the genocide in Rwanda, children were interviewed. Approximately 60% said they did not care if they lived or died. Children in the refugee camps experienced depression, anger, hopelessness, grief, resentment, anxiety, and fear. In addition, some of these children will immigrate to other countries, such as the United States, bringing their issues with them. Unfortunately, these emotional burdens will be carried into adulthood unless they get psychological help.
Deployment and the Military Member
A solider, separated from his family, communicating with them via video conferencing on a tablet.
Deployment impacts not only the service members but their families as well. As the United States approaches almost a decade of conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, there is a growing concern about the effects that these deployments are having on those in the military, as well as their families. Since September 11, 2001, over 2 million military members have been deployed, and 800,000 of them have had multiple deployments. Over 4,000 have been killed and 33,000 have been wounded (Sheppard, Malatras, & Israel, 2010). Even those not injured physically may suffer from other problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from experiences in the war zone. Others may not have the full diagnosis, but still suffer from symptoms. Others suffer depression and anxiety when they arrive home. Studies have shown that members who have frequent contact through letters and other media while deployed may have reduced symptoms of PTSD.
Deployment and Family
In Vietnam, most of the soldiers were single males, and many were sent to Vietnam because of the publish. After the war, the publish was eliminated. The military became voluntary, and many more married individuals entered the service. In 2006, 71% of officers and 40% of enlisted personnel were married, 42% of all service members had children, and women comprised 14% of the total military force (Sheppard et al., 2010). Since the start of the global war on terror, military children and families have faced multiple challenges because of lengthy and multiple deployments; shorter stays at home between deployments; and greater risks of death, injury, and psychological problems among service members. Although many military children adjust and usually do well, these challenges can take a toll on their well-being. Over 2 million children have been impacted by the deployment of a parent, as they face physical, academic, and emotional challenges. When parents are emotionally impacted by war, children may suffer from neglect or possibly even abuse. War increases stress, which can lead to family violence (Smith, 2001). One research study examined 1,771 families of deployed soldiers (Gibbs, Martin, Kupper, & Johnson, 2007). Results indicated that child maltreatment was 42% more likely during deployment than non-deployment. Other researchers also found that maltreatment was at its highest during Desert Storm in the early 1990s and during current conflicts (McCarroll, Ursano, Fan, & Newby, 2008). Neglect accounted for the greatest number of reports.
Research on academic achievement and the impact of deployment has been mixed (Sheppard et al., 2010). Even in peacetime, military children face constant relocations. Children of military members change schools three times more than their civilian counterparts. Frequent moves, especially during the adolescence years, can pose problems when moving from state to state because of different graduation requirements. However, even with all the transitions, military children tend to do well academically (Park, 2011). This may not be the case for children of deployed service members. One study showed decreases in their academic performance, school engagement, and overall school adjustment (Engel, Gallagher, & Lyle, 2010). The researchers looked at the test scores and personal characteristics of 56,000 children whose parents had been deployed. The longer the deployment, the lower the test scores were, especially in science and math.
Nansook Park (2011) says that the military emphasizes values that include service, sacrifice, honor, teamwork, loyalty, sense of purpose, sense of community, and pride. These often become a part of the family’s DNA, which can work as resilience factors to overcome the difficulties of military life. A positive that can come from deployment is that children can become more independent, mature, and responsible. However, sometimes these responsibilities come when the child is not ready developmentally. Psychologically, children may worry about their parents dying. They often have to move off the base and relocate to a place near family, and they lose the support network of the military community. Between 2003 and 2008, the number of children seeking counseling doubled, suggesting that multiple deployments were adding stress. Research shows that deployment is associated with both externalizing problems (e.g., aggressiveness, irritability) and internalizing problems (e.g., crying, sadness, depression, anxiety). However, it is unclear if the rates are different from civilian counterparts or if they are clinically relevant (Sheppard et al., 2010).
Note. The material in this section was written by Kathleen Ringenbach. Copyright 2014 Flat World Knowledge, Inc.